İngilizce ders notu: Past Perfect Continuous

Bu tense aynı Present Perfect Continuous Tense’de olduğu gibi geçmişte yaşanan ve belirli bir süreci kapsayan eylemleri anlatmak için kullanılır. Fakat bu tense’i kullanmamız için geçmişte yaşanan ve bir süre devam eden eylemin, başka bir eylemden önce yaşanmış olması gerekir.

FORM Past Perfect Continuous

[HAD BEEN] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLES:

I had been waiting there for two hours before she finally arrived.
(O vardığında orada iki saattir otobüs beklemekteydim.)

She had only been studying English for two years before she got the job.
(İşe girmeden önce sadece iki yıl boyunca İngilizce çalışmıştı.)

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. “For five minutes” and “for two weeks” are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense, geçmişte bir eylemin başladığını ve geçmişte yaşanan başka bir eyleme kadar devam ettiğini ifade etmek için kullanılır. “Beş dakika boyunca” veya “iki hafta boyunca” gibi zaman ifade eden kalıplar bu tense ile kullanılabilir. Dikkat ederseniz bu tense’in kullanımı Present Perfect Continuous tens’in kullanımına yakındır, fakat bu tense’de bahsedilen eylem bu güne kadar sürmemektedir.)

EXAMPLES:

They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
(Tony varmadan önce bir saatten fazla bir süredir konuşmaktaydılar.)

She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
(Şirket batmadan önce üç yıldır orada çalışmaktaydı.)

James had been teaching at the University for more than a year before he left for Asia.
(James Asya’ya gitmek için ayrılmadan önce bir yıldan fazla bir süredir Üniversite’de eğitim veriyordu.)

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past
(Geçmişteki bir şeyin nedenini belirtmek için)

Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.

(Bu tense ayrıca yaşanan bir eylem veya durumun sebebini belirtirken kullanılır.)

EXAMPLES:

Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
(Jason yorgundu, çünkü yürüyüş yapmıştı/yapmaktaydı.)

Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
(Sam kilo aldı çünkü çok yiyordu/yemekteydi.)

 

 

 

a) Past Perfect Tense, Present Perfect Tense’in past biçimidir.
Present: I am not hungry. I have Just eaten.
Past: When I went home, I wasn’t hungry, because I had just eaten.
Present: I have never seen a kangaroo before.
Past: When I went to Australia last year, I saw a kangaroo there. I
had never seen a kangaroo before.
Present: I don’t want to see that film. I’ve already seen it.
Past: I didn’t want to go to the cinema with my friends. 1 had
already seen the film.
Present: I can’t go out with you now. My daughter hasn’t come back from
school yet.
Past: I couldn’t go out with them, because my daughter hadn’t come
back from school yet.
b) Since, for, always, etc. gibi zarflarla kullanımı:
Since, for, always gibi zarfların, Present Perfect Tense (/ have done) ile kullanıldığını ve
geçmişte başlayıp içinde bulunduğumuz ana kadar devam eden ya da içinde bulunduğumuz
anda da devam etmekte olan eylemleri ifade ettiğini görmüştük. Since, for, always gibi zarflar,
Past Perfect Tense (I had done) ile de kullanılır. Ancak bu kez, geçmişte başlayıp yine geçmişte
bir noktaya kadar devam etmiş olan eylemleri anlatır.
1-22 PRESENT PERFECT or PAST PERFECT
He has been our assistant manager for three months.
Before that, he had worked for us as a clerk for a month.
ELS 47
MORE EXAMPLES:
We were going to meet in front of the cinema at 2 p.m. yesterday. I arrived
there at 2p.m. sharp, but she hadn’t come yet. When it was 2.30 and she still
hadn’t come, I gave up waiting and went into the cinema.
Yesterday, the traffic was heavy, and it took me a long time to get home. When
I arrived home, my parents bad already eaten their dinner.
Last year, he made a very bad mistake at work, but his boss couldn’t dismiss
him just for that. He bad worked there for ten years and hadn’t done anything
wrong before then.
Past Perfect Tense, geçmişte belli bir noktada olmuş olaylardan söz ederken, daha
geçmişte olmuş eylemi vurgulamak için de kullanılır.
When I saw her again ten years later, I found her greatly changed, both
physically and mentally. She had dyed her hair blond and had got thinner. She
had left her parents and had started to earn her own living.
When her marriage was breaking up, she remembered her father’s words. He
had warned her against the difficulties of taking on the responsibility of
marriage, and he had told her that she was too young to face them. She
hadn’t listened to him then and had got married. She now realized how right
he had been.
Ancak, amaç geçmişteki olayları sadece akış sırasına göre vermekse, Past Perfect kullanmak
gerekmez.
She wanted to get married when she was only eighteen. Her father objected to
it. He warned her against the difficulties of taking on the responsibility of
marriage at such an early age, but she didn’t listen to him and got married.
Bazı durumlarda ise Simple Past ya da Past Perfect kullanılması anlam değişikliğine yol açar.
1.When we arrived at the farm house, I warned her to beware of the dog.
(Çiftlik evine varınca, köpeğe dikkat etmesi için onu uyardım.)
2.When we arrived at the farm house, she was cautious. I had warned her to
beware of the dog.
(Çiftlik evine vardığımızda, tedbirliydi. Köpeğe dikkat etmesi için onu
uyarmıştım.)
Yukarıdaki cümlelerden birincisinde “uyarma’ eylemi çiftlik evine gelince, ikincisinde ise
gelmeden önce yapılmıştır.
When I arrived at the party, Chris left.
(First, I arrived. Then Chris left, so I saw him.)
When I arrived at the party, Chris had left. (First, he
left. Then I arrived, so I didn’t see him.)
While I was coming here, I saw an accident. A car had run into a cyclist. (/
didn’t see the accident happen.)
While I was coming here, I saw an accident. A car ran into a cyclist. (/
saw the accident happen.)

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